Free Christmas Songs

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Dynamics

The loudness and softness in music is called dynamics. We typically use Italian terms to indicate how loud or soft a section of music should be. Here are basic dynamic terms, as well as their abbreviations.

Term
Meaning
Abbreviation
pianissimo
very soft
pp
piano
soft
p
mezzo piano
medium soft
mp
mezzo forte
medium loud
mf
forte
loud
f
fortissimo
very loud
ff
crescendo
getting louder
cresc.
diminuendo
getting softer
dim.
decrescendo
getting softer
decresc.

 

In written music, these dynamic markings are indicated below the staff to which they refer, and they are represented by their abbreviations. Crescendo and diminuendo can also be indicated with the following symbols, printed below the staff.

Crescendo:
Crescendo

Diminuendo:
Diminuendo

 

 

 

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